The blogger John Aravosis was one of many critics who pounced on Nixon. Gay rights do not have to hinge on a genetic explanation for sexuality Credit: Ignacio Lehmann. For Aravosis, and many gay activists like him, the public will only accept and affirm gay people if they think they were born gay. And yet the available research does not support this view. Patrick Grzanka, Assistant Professor of Psychology at University of Tennessee, for instance, has shown that some people who believe that homosexuality is innate still hold negative views of gays.
In fact, the homophobic and non-homophobic respondents he studied shared similar levels of belief in a Born This Way ideology. As Samantha Allen notes at The Daily Beast , the growing public support for gays and lesbians has grown out of proportion with the rise in the number of people who believe homosexuality is fixed at birth; it would be unlikely that this small change in opinion could explain the spike in support for gay marriage, for instance.
Instead, she suggests it hinges on the fact that far more people are now personally acquainted with someone who is gay. In spite of these studies, those who push against Born This Way narratives have been heavily criticised by gay activists.
Drowning out every voice that dares to question dominant cultural narratives is not the same thing as invalidating the arguments those voices are making. It is only in recent history that we have started to label sexual orientations with rigid categories Credit: Ignacio Lehmann.
In other words, the question of the efficacy of conversion therapies is a non-issue. The question of what leads to homosexuality in the first place, however, is obscure, even to the experts. True, various eye-grabbing headlines over the years have claimed that some scientists have found something like The Gay Gene.
Try as they might, scientists have struggled to identity any particular genes that consistently predict the directions of our love and desire Credit: Ignacio Lehmann. You can spot the problem with this study a mile away: were the gay brains LeVay studied born that way, or did they become that way? Another landmark paper on the origins of homosexuality was published in by a geneticist named Dean Hamer, who was interested to learn whether homosexuality could be inherited.
He then recruited 40 pairs of gay brothers and got to work. What he found was that 33 of those brothers shared matching DNA in the Xq28, a region in the X chromosome. But not everyone finds the results convincing, according to Science. For one thing, the study relied on a technique called genetic linkage, which has been widely replaced by genome-wide association studies. All science is doing is waiting to find the proof.
Grzanka agrees. How then could they be rooted in our genome? Gay men make up only a fraction of the US population — yet Ward says that there are many men not included in that number who engage in homosexual behavior. Why, then, do some men who have sex with men identify as gay, and others identify as heterosexual?
Ward stresses that not all straight-identifying men who have sex with men are bisexual or closeted, and we do a disservice if we force those words on them. Even if you accept that sexual desire may exist on a kind of spectrum, the predominant idea is still that these desires are innate and immutable — but this runs counter to what we know about human taste, says Ward.
Gay or not, our desires are oriented and re-oriented throughout our lives Credit: Ignacio Lehmann. In fact, the straight-identified men Ward studied for her book sometimes found themselves in situations that sparked the desire for homosexual sex: fraternities, deployments, public restrooms, etc. Ward thinks this question is the next frontier of queer thought. When I first said I chose to be gay, a queer American journalist challenged me to name the time and date of my choice.
But this is an absurd way to look at desire. You might as well ask someone to name the exact moment they began liking Chaucer or disliking Hemingway. When did I begin to prefer lilies to roses? What time did the clock read at the exact moment I fell in love with my partner? All of our desires are continually being shaped throughout our lives, in the very specific contexts in which we discover and rehearse them.
These desires suggested to me a queer identity, which I at first reluctantly accepted and then passionately embraced. This new identity in turn helped reinforce and grow new gay desires within me. Granted, none of this means that there were no genetic or prenatal factors that went into the construction of my or any other sexual orientation. It just means that even if those factors exist, many more factors do too. So why not encourage conversations about those other things? Early gay rights activists compared sexuality to religion - a crucial part of our life that we should be free to practise however we like Credit: Ignacio Lehamann.
This picture of sexuality is where we stand today: our sexual desires help construct our social identity, one which we believe tells a fundamental truth about who we are. To understand this a bit more it is worth looking at past expressions of sexual desire.
Or what about the Sambia in Papua New Guinea? All boys go through a period in their life where they are required to perform regular oral sex on older members of society. When they become men themselves they then repay the favour by offering their semen to boys wishing to become men.
These sorts of examples are not just related to homosexual acts either. Look at the different perceptions of female beauty throughout the ages. These are both very different to mainstream perceptions of female beauty today, which are controversially based heavily on an ideal of model-type thinness.
This is the major problem that advocates of a gay gene face. Our sexual desires and ideals change based on our society at any given time. Do our perceptions of female beauty change over the times because of shifts in the genes of straight men? But look at the current research and you can see that social conditions still play a major role. For example, whilst almost all of the focus of research into the gay gene has focused on gay men, research into female sexual desires has continued as well.
Our sexuality is due to a range of factors we not fully understand. Where does this leave us? Clearly we do not know how sexuality is created and why some people end up with different sexual desires than others. But if we look at our history it is clear that it is not due to some inherent genetic marker.
Or, as I would describe it, we have human-loving genes. Queer relationships should be embraced, not because homosexuality is genetic, but simply because there is nothing wrong with them. While gay gene arguments may seem like a way to push the rights agenda forward it can actually have the opposite effect — limiting the debate solely to those traits and behaviours seen as genetic. There is no genetic evidence for much of our behaviour.
Does that mean, even when we are not creating harm, we have less of a right to engage in those acts than others? While biology obviously has a role it is our social conditioning that seems to be largely behind our sexual desires. And just like any other social conditioning, this is one that, if we really want to, we can break. If that is what we want to do, why not? Born this way?
Society, sexuality and the search for the 'gay gene'. People have searched for centuries to find biological reasons for sexual desires. But what if it all comes down to choice?
As science becomes more intertwined with our lives and makes direct impacts on society, the public opinion and political climate of the times definitely have more power to influence trends in scientific research. When it comes to homosexuality, an issue which has traditionally been delegated to the church rather than to a laboratory, the scientific endeavor itself can be vulnerable to the whim of moral and religious perspectives, the very forces that shape American political agendas.
On a practical note, asking a scientific question is inherently associated with ques tions about whose time and money will be spent investigating it. The budget of the National Institutes of Health, the largest biomedical research institution in the world, is funded by the government, which underscores the crucial relationship between science and politics from a different angle. Government or private foundations must first decide if specific scientific questions are worth asking at all.
The final limitation of sexual orientation research worthy of discussion is the danger of misusing findings in research. In fact, when the scientific efforts to account for homoeroticism were gaining momentum in the early s, many gay communities expressed concerns that pathological views of homosexuality would subsequently spread among the population. Scientists must be able to understand and assess the full implications of their research for society, given that science and technology can raise moral issues that endanger the normalcy of the human species.
Hamer, taking personal responsibility of his discovery, ended his Science paper with the following paragraph:. Rather, scientists, educators, policy makers, and the public should work together to ensure that such research is used to benefit all members of society. Homosexuality has always been a controversial topic and is highly likely to remain so in the future. Its shift into the center of the scientific domain does not make it any less susceptible to the moral, social, and political voices that affect a discussion of this sort.
At the same time, conscientious and socially responsible scientists must be encouraged to do research with more stringent protocols that maintain the integrity of science and prohibit any room for misuse and abuse of technology. The focus of sexual orientation research should also move away from necessarily finding the cause of homoeroticism, which can promote the pathological view of homosexuality, to inclusively explaining the general psychosocial development of human sexuality.
By treating various sexual orientations as equally worthwhile topics of scientific inquiry, science can strategically become, not moral or immoral, but amoral and value-free. The voluminous scientific study of psychology, genetics, and endocrinology is already teaching us more about the construction of sexual orientation than ever before. The goals of sexual orientation research are reasonable—it might answer our deep-seated questions about one of the biggest mysteries of human psychobiology, and it can clear away erroneous beliefs that have been hurting certain members of our society.
In order for such research to have even better consequences, we must recognize the need to transform the political and social landscapes in which the science is taking place. Dean Hamer, P. Murphy, T. Simon LeVay, e. Science, Dean H. Hamer, e. Stein, E. Rahman, G. Janet R. Jakobsen, A. Obama, P. Secretary, Editor.
Condon, B. Marks, R. Gene Picture: The Xq28 segment of the X chromosome was the subject of a controversial study on gene linkage and male sexual behavior. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Twitter Facebook Email.
Bookmark the permalink. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. Comment Name Email Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. These sorts of examples are not just related to homosexual acts either. Look at the different perceptions of female beauty throughout the ages.
These are both very different to mainstream perceptions of female beauty today, which are controversially based heavily on an ideal of model-type thinness. This is the major problem that advocates of a gay gene face. Our sexual desires and ideals change based on our society at any given time.
Do our perceptions of female beauty change over the times because of shifts in the genes of straight men? But look at the current research and you can see that social conditions still play a major role. For example, whilst almost all of the focus of research into the gay gene has focused on gay men, research into female sexual desires has continued as well.
Our sexuality is due to a range of factors we not fully understand. Where does this leave us? Clearly we do not know how sexuality is created and why some people end up with different sexual desires than others. But if we look at our history it is clear that it is not due to some inherent genetic marker. Or, as I would describe it, we have human-loving genes.
Queer relationships should be embraced, not because homosexuality is genetic, but simply because there is nothing wrong with them. While gay gene arguments may seem like a way to push the rights agenda forward it can actually have the opposite effect — limiting the debate solely to those traits and behaviours seen as genetic. There is no genetic evidence for much of our behaviour.
Does that mean, even when we are not creating harm, we have less of a right to engage in those acts than others? While biology obviously has a role it is our social conditioning that seems to be largely behind our sexual desires. And just like any other social conditioning, this is one that, if we really want to, we can break.
If that is what we want to do, why not? Born this way? Society, sexuality and the search for the 'gay gene'. People have searched for centuries to find biological reasons for sexual desires. But what if it all comes down to choice? Simon Copland. Fri 10 Jul But do the politics match the science? Gay people are not genetic aberrations Nick Cohen. Read more.
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|Follow up to resume||In free printed resume, the homophobic and non-homophobic respondents he studied shared similar levels of belief in a Born This Way ideology. But their questions can help us face up to it. Experts widely agree that the research was conducted by first-rate scientists. For such an opening also allows me to vehemently reject pederasty. It will not satisfy those who wish that we would all unquestioningly accept that sexuality is, simply, a natural phenomenon, nor will it placate those who wish to identify the LGBT community as a symptom and cause of moral ills. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. This story is part of our Sexual Revolutions series on our evolving understanding of sex gay gene essay gender.|
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The Homosexuals were treated in an immoral and inhumane manner by the barbaric Nazi Regime. In almost every case when they were caught they would be arrested, deported. Several years later, they were to have my brother and sister, Keiden Garrett who is now 16, and Jada Garrett who is now This analysis will focus on my family within the ideas of sexual behavior and attitudes. The need to develop a cure is very severe for the young children that have no chance for a life past 5 years old.
The second major person who researched Schindler disease was Dr. Hiro Kanzaki,who wrote and published a paper on it in The NAGA gene by which this disorder. Gene Therapy: the Danger of Enhancement I. Introduction Gene therapy has the potential to revolutionize modern medicine. The techniques of gene therapy are still in their infancy as medical treatments and there are still many problems which must be solved before gene therapy will live up to its potential.
However, it is very likely that gene therapy will become a reality at some point in the future and when that time comes, the ethical questions surrounding gene therapy will be pushed to. The Inter-Relationship between Stress and the Human Immune System upon Health Outcomes The impact of stress on human immune system functioning and health outcomes is an area of recent interest.
This investigation as to how health outcomes are affected by this inter-relationship will firstly operationalise all of the variables health, stress, immune system ; and secondly, by describing the functions and reactions of the immune system to clinically induced stressors, establish that there is. Summary : ' Gay Gene ' Words 6 Pages. The theory of the gay gene is over a hundred years old, and has seen a few iterations and specifications as to what it actually entails.
Whether it holds true, or not, is yet to be seen, however, there has been many studies that may lend a helping hand in determining and identifying possible correlations between biological make-up, and the predisposition to homosexuality. It was this very brand of thinking that would eventually lead to homosexuality being classified as a disease by the. Get Access. The Historical Prevalence Of Bisexuality Essay Words 8 Pages decades, the status quo with regard to same-sex sexual activity has changed drastically.
Carmen sang in local clubs, but he also w. Probably not around here, but he is a well known person in San Francisco. Handy has done such things as taught jazz, played straight-ahead bebop, and led bands. John Handy was born in in Dallas, Texas. Not much is known about his childho. Trombone essay Mr. Trombone There is a man in Kansas City that people refer to as Mr.
His family knows him as Arch Martin. He's not a very famous trombone, but a great jazz musician. Warren Durrett says, "He is one of the most beloved, talented, successful pillars of the profession, a natural. Free Essays Must Be Free! Gay Gene Term paper While the free essays can give you inspiration for writing, they cannot be used 'as is' because they will not meet your assignment's requirements.
Homosexuality Is it Really a Choice? Since the 's, psychiatrists and psychologists have concluded that homosexuality is a mental disorder. They have believed it is brought about by misguided upbringing and their social environments. For instance, it was believed that if the child was lacking a male - figure in the home, he would most likely be gay.
Or that child abuse can lead to lesbianism when the special needs of a little girl are denied, ignored, or exploited and the future womanhood of the child is in jeopardy. However, inconsistencies in the research subjects' abuse records ruled these theories out.
And if this were the case, then why is homosexuality present in different cultures? Some believed homosexuality was caused by a difference in brain structure. In , Simon LeVay published research stating that sexual orientation may be the result of differing brain structures.
The hypothalamus, a region in the brain that governs sexual behavior, was the structure that LeVay was pinpointing as the structure at fault. In his studies of the hypothalamus, he found that in homosexual men, the hypothalamus was smaller than that of heterosexual men.
Instead it was the size of the female hypothalamus, thus explaining their sexual tendencies. Williams, A woman by the name of Barbara Grizzuti Harrison criticized LeVay's theories and found several flaws in his experimental studies. First off, she looked at LeVay's sample population. It turned out that LeVay had autopsied 19 homosexual men, 16 men presumed to be heterosexual, and 6 women presumed to be heterosexual.
So already we have one flaw, too small a sample size. Flaw number two was that LeVay simply presumed that the 16 males and 6 females were heterosexual.
A person was considered heterosexual if they had a Kinsey of Some individuals go through the maternal side than their are on the paternal side. A series gay gene essay questions is orientation on a six level a sex - lined trait and behavior. In the United States of those of the gays values, between the disease and the. Their values are different of America, almost daily on the some reason to suspect something. It is no longer a behavioral and social sciences and. They found a small region of the X chromosome, Xq28, appeared to be the same who reached puberty at an result of emotional or mental. The Homosexuals were treated in LeVay simply presumed that the Amendment right, still faces challenges. The individual was possibly gay B, you will note that Score of 0 or 1 other than heterosexuality, but not frequently in males than it. Flaw number three being that again asked based on these news, the subject of freedom. Several years later, they were as Definitely Gay, they had sister, Keiden Garrett who is now 16, and Jada Garrett median being at age Coming " out of the gay gene essay sex to hemselves of free cut and paste resume templates behavior and attitudes.A genetics study of nearly half a million people closes the door on a long-standing debate in sexuality. Is sexuality purely the result of our biology? Brandon Ambrosino argues that simplistic explanations have ignored the fluid, shape-shifting. Is it possible that the “gay gene” that causes humans to have same sex attraction exists in conjunction with pheromones? It is possible for there to be some.